Category Archives: Google

Tourism and Technology: What the future holds for travel distribution?

mobile.pngThe development of digital media technologies, particularly the internet and social media are offering a wide range of possibilities to the travel industry. These latest technological advances have enabled many travel businesses, including airlines and hotels to manage their distribution channels in a more efficient and economical way.

With the changing landscape of travel e-commerce and the ubiquity of IT solutions which gather, store, and analyse data in a variety of ways; airlines have improved their ability to monitor their performance across channels. Very often, they are in a position to quickly adjust offers. Their prices are usually based on a variety of situations and circumstances, as they optimise communications and transactions.

By using big data and analytics on their customer behaviours, many travel businesses are taking advantage of channel-based distribution. Hence, the distribution networks have come a long way from the ticket counter. Evidently, travel and tourism businesses are leveraging themselves with data-driven marketing, as they seek new customers and prospects. For example, they may increase their profitability from high-yield customers as they are using elaborated pricing and revenue management systems. The travel distribution is evolving from its current passive, rigid, and technology-centric state to a more flexible, dynamic, and passenger-centric environment which we call ‘Active Distribution’.

Any changes in the tourism distributive systems may be stimulated by external macro factors such as politics and trade, global and national economies, technological innovations and access to them, et cetera. The airline industry could also be effected by increased competition from low-cost carriers, merger and acquisitions, and fuel costs, among other issues. However, the commercial future of the tourism industry may also be influenced by other factors, including travel distribution.

Tourism businesses can possibly become even more effective in how they sell their products and services, particularly if they deliver positive customer experiences. Tourists perceive value in customer-centric businesses. Most probably, in future, there will be significant improvements in terms of technologically enhanced customer services.

Tomorrow’s businesses will be serving passengers from geographically-diverse regions.  There will be more travellers from emerging markets and developing economies. The travel distribution systems will have to cater for senior citizens, as there are aging populations in many countries.

The distributive channels must be designed to accommodate a divergent nature of users. Tourism service providers and their intermediaries have to provide engaging, intuitive shopping experiences that tap into the traveller’s discretionary purchases.

The businesses will need to embrace new technologies and flexible distribution processes, as outmoded distribution components will be replaced. It is envisaged that the distributive systems will be increasingly relying on mobile devices as these technologies enable consumer interaction with speech and voice recognition software.

The tourism businesses will leverage themselves with artificial intelligence which could facilitate dynamic pricing as well as personalisation of services.

The distributive  systems could interface with virtual  reality software to help businesses merchandise their products in captivating customer experiences.

The third-party retailers will continue to form part of the distribution mix. However, many service providers will be using their direct channels to reach their targeted customers.

There will probably be fewer market intermediaries and online travel agencies will see significant declines.

It is very likely, that airlines will not have to pre-file volumes of defined fares through third-parties as they may not rely on inventory buckets to manage their selling capacity. The airlines must recognise the need to invest in new internal selling systems. Today’s passenger service systems lack the flexibility that airlines require. They are not adequate enough to serve  the airlines’ flexible and dynamic sales environments. These systems could be replaced with modular retailing platforms. Full Retailing Platforms (FRPs) will allows airlines to take back the control they require to be better retailers through any distribution channel (IATA, 2016).

However, Google, the multinational technology company, could be playing a much larger role in travel distribution. The technology giant could participate in, and possibly disrupt the tourism industry if it becomes an online travel agency. whether through acquisition or by launching a product of its own. In fact, its travel product, Google Flights is increasing in popularity among travellers.

Moreover, there have been recent developments in online payment facilities. Undoubtedly, there will further improvements in this area, as well. Payment providers like M-Pesa, Alipay, and PayPal will probably become more important.

In the foreseeable future, the travel marketplace will surely introduce new technologies and capabilities as multiple venture capital firms are increasingly investing in disruptive innovation.

There may be new businesses which could penetrate the market, including private air service operators who could provide “on-demand” airline services; alternatively, technology companies could develop or acquire their meta-search engines or online travel agencies.

Undoubtedly, the travel and tourism businesses need to find ways that intentionally overturn decades of outdated, distribution practices. The distribution community can choose to innovate and disrupt, or allow others to be leading innovators.

 

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Filed under Business, digital media, Google, Marketing, tourism, Travel

Springer’s latest book on Strategic Management; Corporate Sustainability, Social Responsibility and Environmental Management

csr2This book provides a concise and authoritative guide to corporate social responsibility (CSR) and its related paradigms, including environmental responsibility, corporate sustainability and responsibility, creating shared value, strategic CSR, stakeholder engagement, corporate citizenship, business ethics and corporate governance, among others. It is primarily intended for advanced undergraduate and / or graduate students. Moreover, this publication is highly relevant for future entrepreneurs, small business owners, non-profit organisations and charitable foundations, as it addresses the core aspects of contemporary strategies, public policies and practices. It also features case studies on international policies and principles, exploring corporate businesses’ environmental, social and governance reporting.

Corporate Sustainability, Social Responsibility and Environmental Management: An Introduction to Theory and Practice with Case Studies – by Mark Anthony Camilleri,PhD (Edinburgh)

Google Scholar Citation

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The book includes a foreword by Professor Emeritus Archie B. Carroll, who is one of the pioneers of the CSR paradigm. It also features numerous endorsements from accomplished academic researchers:

“There’s a revolution taking place, one that’s percolating from the uncoordinated efforts of activist consumers/NGOs, regulators/moralists, and corporate/institutional investors. Mark Camilleri’s new book provides an excellent overview of the eclectic academic literature in this area, and presents a lucid description of how savvy companies can embed themselves in circular systems that reduce system-wide externalities, increase economic value, and build reputation. A valuable contribution.”

Charles J. Fombrun, Founder of Reputation Institute and a former Professor of Management at New York University and The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, USA.

 

“I am pleased to recommend Dr. Camilleri’s latest book, Corporate Sustainability, Social Responsibility, and Environmental Management. The book is a rich source of thought for everyone who wants to get deeper insights into this important topic. The accompanying five detailed case studies on a wide array of corporate sustainable and responsible initiatives are helpful in demonstrating how theoretical frameworks have been implemented into practical initiatives. This book is a critical companion for academics, students, and practitioners.”

Adam Lindgreen, Professor and Head of Department of Marketing, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.

 

“This book is an essential resource for students, practitioners, and scholars. Dr. Mark Camilleri skillfully delivers a robust summary of research on the business and society relationship and insightfully points to new understandings of and opportunities for responsible business conduct. I highly recommend Corporate Sustainability, Social Responsibility, and Environmental Management: An Introduction to Theory and Practice with Case Studies.”

Diane L. Swanson, Professor and Chair of Distinction in Business Administration and Ethics Education at Kansas State University, KS, USA.

 

“Mark’s latest book is lucid, insightful, and highly useful in the classroom. I strongly recommend it.”

Donald Siegel, Dean of the School of Business and Professor of Management at the University at Albany, State University of New York, NY, USA.

 

“The theory and practice of corporate sustainability, social responsibility and environmental management is complex and dynamic. This book will help scholars to navigate through the maze. Dr Camilleri builds on the foundations of leading academics, and shows how the subject continues to evolve. The book also acknowledges the importance of CSR 2.0 – or transformative corporate sustainability and responsibility – as a necessary vision of the future.”

Wayne Visser, Senior Associate at Cambridge University, UK. He is the author of CSR 2.0: Transforming Corporate Sustainability & Responsibility and Sustainable Frontiers: Unlocking Change Through Business, Leadership and Innovation.

 

“Corporate Sustainability, Social Responsibility and Environmental Management: An Introduction to Theory and Practice with Case Studies” provides a useful theoretical and practical overview of CSR and the importance of practicing corporate sustainability.”

Geoffrey P. Lantos, Professor of Business Administration, Stonehill College. Easton, Massachusetts, USA.

 

“This book offers a truly comprehensive guide to current concepts and debates in the area of corporate responsibility and sustainability. It gives helpful guidance to all those committed to mainstreaming responsible business practices in an academically reflected, yet practically relevant, way.”

Andreas Rasche, Professor of Business in Society, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.

 

“A very useful resource with helpful insights and supported by an enriching set of case studies”

Albert Caruana, Professor of Marketing at the University of Malta, Malta and at the University of Bologna, Italy.

 

“A good overview of the latest thinking about Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Management based on a sound literature review as well as useful case studies. Another step forward in establishing a new business paradigm.”

René Schmidpeter, Professor of International Business Ethics and CSR at Cologne Business School (CBS), Germany.

 

“Dr. Camilleri’s book is a testimony to the continuous need around the inquiry and advocacy of the kind of responsibility that firms have towards societal tenets. Understanding how CSR can become a modern manifestation of deep engagement into socio-economic undercurrents of our firms, is the book’s leading contribution to an important debate, that is more relevant today than ever before”

Mark Esposito, Professor of Business and Economics at Harvard University, MA, USA.

 

“Mark’s book is a great addition to the literature on CSR and EM; it will fill one of the gaps that have continued to exist in business and management schools, since there are insufficient cases for teaching and learning in CSR and Environmental Management in Business Schools around the globe.”

Samuel O. Idowu, Senior Lecturer in Accounting at London Metropolitan University, UK; a Professor of CSR at Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, China and a Deputy CEO, Global Corporate Governance Institute, US

 

“Corporate Social Responsibility has grown from ‘nice to have’ for big companies to a necessity for all companies. Dr Mark Camilleri sketches with this excellent book the current debate in CSR and CSR communication and with his cases adds valuable insights in the ongoing development and institutionalization of CSR in nowadays business”.

Wim J.L. Elving, A/Professor at the University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Filed under Business, Circular Economy, Corporate Governance, Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Sustainability and Responsibility, CSR, Google, Shared Value, Social Cohesion, Socially Responsible Investment, SRI, Stakeholder Engagement, sustainable development

Google’s Advantage in Native Advertising

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There are many internet users who may be wary of their privacy settings and on the information they share online. One of the reasons is that it is very likely that ICT giants like Google and Facebook may know their users very well. Google, in particular might know where its users are, the places they go to, the location of their home address and where’s their place of work, who are its users’ closest friends, the things they like, the websites they browse and in many cases, even the content of their emails.

Provided that individuals don’t mind giving up a chunk of personal data, their life can be made a bit easier by the web’s services. The internet’s mantra is to make information more useful, accessible and readily available to everyone. Nowadays, we use our tablets or smart phones and visit dozens of websites to learn about products and services. Savvy consumers like to compare prices whether they are buying items online or in retail stores. The latest technological developments and additional sources of information are influencing consumer behaviour as it appears that they are becoming more frugal in their purchase decisions. Consumers are seeking better value and good deals in return for their money.

Google is increasingly exposing its search functionality to its users. Last year, it tested a ‘Knowledge Graph’ pop-up which featured a carousel of images along with certain search results on hotel accommodation. As with restaurants and bars, review scores and recommendations are usually generated by consumers themselves rather than through conventional search engine optimisation tricks. It seems that Google’s drive is to personalise the search experience through ‘meta-search’ tools which aim to recognise what exactly users are looking for. In this day and age, it is very important to understand the broader context of consumers’ search queries. For instance, internet users may start searching for flights. Afterwards they might browse for hotels, then restaurants as well as cultural activities. Evidently, Google is responding to such queries by bringing up pictures of neighbourhoods, reviews as and also Trip Advisor content.

Recently, Google has been looking for the meaning beyond its users’ search content. Before September 2013, Google’s searches were focused on site content which improved its results by penalising low-quality material. However, the search engine’s latest algorithm, Google Hummingbird is focusing more on the search query itself. Hummingbird has implemented something called “conversational search” in order to better understand what users want when they either type or speak a search query into Google’s search engine. For example; the query, “Where can I buy a smart phone, near me?” Pre-Hummingbird Google would have prioritised search results that match individual words – like “buy” and “smart phone.” With Hummingbird, Google can better understand what users want from their query. Most probably, Google may know your exact location and hopefully it can find smart phones near you. It may be in a better position to determine whether you want a brick-and-mortar store rather than an online retailer. In a nutshell, Hummingbird is focusing on the meaning of the entire search query rather than simply searching for key terms. Hummingbird allows Google to provide its users with more accurate results and better site rankings.

Notwithstanding, Google often utilises its users’ data to re-target advertising to them. Google collates its users’ profiles with their data. Personal information is being used by Google for business purposes. Google Adwordsdisplays the marketers’ messages in front of potential customers; right when they’re using its search engine, watching a video on YouTube or when they are receiving their email through Gmail. As a result, online marketing ads appear on google users’ screens. These ads capture the users’ attention by providing certain content which may possibly appeal to them as potential customers. Such online advertising is called ‘native advertising’. Professional marketers are capable of producing relevant content which can entice customers’ to purchase their products or services. The right content is personalised in both its form and function according to individual customers’ needs and wants. This way, paid advertising may feel less intrusive and there’s a better chance that internet users will click on these web ads. The most popular formats for native advertising usually feature promoted articles, images, videos, music as well as other media.

In the past few years tech giants, particularly Google strived in their endeavours to gather valuable information about their users’ interests, the things they look for, their friends, the places they like and what have you! Google maintains that it can better serve its users if they voluntarily disclose their data on the web.

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