Tag Archives: Tourism Planning

My Latest Edited Book on Destination Marketing

An Excerpt from the Preface of “Strategic Perspectives in Destination Marketing” (forthcoming):

The marketing of a destination relies on planning, organization and the successful execution of strategies and tactics. Therefore, this authoritative book provides students and practitioners with relevant knowledge of tourism planning and destination marketing. The readers are equipped with a strong pedagogical base on the socio-economic, environmental and technological impacts on the attractiveness of tourist destinations. At the same time, this publication presents contemporary conceptual discussions as well as empirical studies on different aspects of the travel and tourism industries.

The readers of this book will acquire a good understanding of the tourism marketing environment, destination marketing and branding, pricing of tourism products, tourism distribution channels, etourism, as well as on sustainable and responsible tourism practices, and among other topics. They will appreciate that the tourism marketers, including destination management organizations (DMOs) are increasingly using innovative tools, including; digital media and ubiquitous technologies to engage with prospective visitors. Hence, this book also sheds light on the latest industry developments in travel, tourism, hospitality and events.

Chapter 1 introduces the readers to the tourism concept as it describes the travel facilitators and motivators. Afterwards, it explains several aspects of the tourism product, including; the visitors’ accessibility, accommodation, attractions, activities and amenities. It categorizes different travel markets; including; adventure tourism, business tourism (including meetings, incentives, conferences and events), culinary tourism, cultural (or heritage) tourism, eco-tourism (or sustainable tourism), educational tourism, health (or medical tourism), religious tourism, rural tourism, seaside tourism, sports tourism, urban (or city) tourism, wine tourism, among other niche areas.

Chapter 2 examines how foreign tourist intermediaries perceive Portugal as a tourist destination. It analyzes the promotional information that they use to attract visitors to this Southern European destination. This contribution recognizes that the tour operators have an important role in intermediating the relationship between the tourists and the tourism service providers. The authors suggest that tourism relies on the destination’s image that is often being portrayed by the foreign tourism intermediaries.

Chapter 3 explores the cruising consumers’ behaviors and their decision-making processes. The authors maintain that the destination, the social life on board as well as the cruise features are very important factors for consumer loyalty. In conclusion, they recommend that cruise lines should create synergies with local institutions in tourist destinations.

Chapter 4 investigates the Spanish inhabitants’ opinions on the tourism industry’s seasonality issues. The findings suggest that the local residents who live in the coastal destinations were in favor of having tourism activity throughout the year; as opposed to other host communities from urban and rural destinations (in Spain) who indicated that they would enjoy a break from tourist activity during the low / off peak seasons.

Chapter 5 provides a critical review about the pricing and revenue management strategies that are increasingly being adopted within the tourism and hospitality contexts. The authors introduce the readers to the concept of “rate fencing”. This proposition suggests that businesses ought to differentiate among various customer segments, as they should attract and develop relationships with the most profitable ones.

Chapter 6 appraises the use of qualitative reviews and quantitative ratings in interactive media. The authors also engage in a discussion on the content analysis of the online users’ generated content (UGC). They posit that it is in the interest of tourism and hospitality businesses to respond to positive and negative word of mouth publicity in reasonable time, as they may have to deal with fake and unverified reviews.

Chapter 7 clarifies how online travel businesses, including; AirTickets, AirBnB and TripAdvisor among others, are continuously investing in their communication technologies and infrastructures to improve their online users’ experience. The author contends that innovative technologies, such as recommender systems and control frameworks are supporting the travel businesses’ in their customer-centric approaches.

Chapter 8 discusses about the concept of the brand identity of destinations from the suppliers’ perspective. The author puts forward a case study on the city of Porto, in Portugal. She explicates how this tourist destination has used an authenticity-based approach to leverage itself as a distinct brand identity among other destinations.

Chapter 9 proposes an ambitious plan to attract visitors to Buxton, Derbyshire. Firstly, the authors focus on the marketing endeavors of a local renovated hotel. Secondly, they provide relevant examples of how other wellness and spa towns in Britain, including; Bath and Harrogate are organizing events and festivals to attract international tourists throughout the year.

Chapter 10 explains how a perceived (positive) image can provide a sustainable competitive advantage to tourism destinations. The authors argue that the historical events as well as other socio-political factors can possibly affect the visitors’ (pre-)conceptions of the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey. However, they imply that the tourists’ positive experiences could translate to positive publicity for this destination.

Chapter 11 elucidates the notion of destination branding in the rural context. The author maintains that there are both opportunities and challenges for tourism policy makers to preserve the traditional farms and rural dwellings, in order to safeguard their distinct identity. He posits that the rural environment can add value to the tourist destinations and their branding.

Chapter 12 posits that today’s tour operators are highly driven by technology as prospective travelers are searching for online information about their destinations prior to their visits. The authors describe the digital marketing strategies and tactics that are used to promote Malawi, in Africa. They suggest that the inbound tour operators are increasingly using relevant content marketing through interactive technologies and social media to engage with prospective visitors.

Chapter 13 evaluates potential strategies that could be used to develop the tourism product in Adiyaman, Turkey. The authors identify the core responsibilities of the tourism stakeholders and put forward their key recommendations for the branding of this rural destination.

In sum, this authoritative publication is written in an engaging style that entices the curiosity of prospective readers. It explains all the theory in a simple and straightforward manner. This book reports on the global tourism marketing environments that comprise a wide array of economic, socio-cultural and environmental issues. It explains how technological advances have brought significant changes to the tourism industry and its marketing mix.

This book was written by academics for other scholars, researchers, advanced under-graduate and post-graduate students; as it provides a thorough literature review on different tourism topics, including; destination marketing and branding, sustainable and responsible tourism, tourism technologies, digital marketing, travel distribution and more. It is also relevant to the industry practitioners, including consultants, senior executives and managers who work for destination management organizations, tourism offices, hotels, inbound / outbound tour operators and travel agents, among others.


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Tourism’s Impact on Economic Development and Competitiveness


The latest Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) publication entitled, “Tourism Trends and Policies 2014″ provides an in‑depth analysis of the latest trends and policy developments in tourism planning for 48 OECD member and partner countries. It highlights key reforms in tourism organisation and governance with a focus on national and international issues. This report suggests that there is potential for further visa and travel facilitation policies to boost economies. Therefore, OECD (2014) is calling for a strategic, integrated approach with greater coherence among all tourism stakeholders. This publication provides comparative data on tourism taxation. It posits that tourism-related taxes may support infrastructure and tourism development. It also features some relevant information about national budgets pertaining to marketing and promotion, safety and security and environmental protection.

Travel facilitation, tourism and growth

The tourism industry directly accounts for 4.7% of GDP, 6% of employment and 21% of exports of services in OECD countries. In Europe, new estimates indicate that 6.6 million travellers from six key target markets were lost due to the visa regime in 2012, equating to EUR 5.5 billion in direct GDP contribution. As a result, governments have implemented a variety of approaches to facilitate travel, from streamlining visa processing and changing visa requirements to introducing other forms of travel authorisation and improving border processes such as e-visa, visa on arrival, automated border processing, and trusted traveller programmes.

Taxation and tourism

In recent years there has been a general increase in tourism‑related taxes, fees, and charges, including those associated with air travel, those with an environmental focus as well as incentives for investment and spending. The rationale for specific tourism‑related taxation varies from country to country. Apart from contributing to general tax revenue and supporting public investment in tourism development, other common purposes include: cost recovery for passenger processing and environmental protection; encouraging visitor spending and job creation; and funding promotional activities. Many countries have introduced reduced rates of consumption tax for tourism‑related activities – focusing primarily on hotels and restaurants – to boost tourism and stimulate employment in the sector, or tourist/VAT refund schemes to encourage visitor spending. Industry is concerned by the sheer number of levies payable by tourism operators, what they see as regular increases above inflation and the lack of a clear link with the cost of service delivery, which results in many taxes raising more than their stated objectives. The OECD will continue to work with countries to better understand how tourism‑related taxation affects the international competitiveness and attractiveness of destinations.

Key recommendations

  • Greater coherence across government policies is needed to boost tourism and economic growth. Policies such as innovation, transportation, taxation, service quality and visas influence people’s desire to travel and the competitiveness of destinations.
  • Governments should focus more on evaluating the tourism policies, given the widespread pressure on public finances in many countries. More detailed monitoring, evaluation and analysis, of existing taxes and incentives for example, would give policy makers the tools to implement evidence‑based policies to support the long‑term sustainable growth of the tourism industry.
  • Governments and the tourism industry need to develop skills to keep pace with market developments. Digital and social media require a major shift in approaches to marketing, promotion and service delivery, including tailored marketing to individual consumers and learning how to communicate with digitally‑aware tourists.
  • Closer alignment is needed between transport and tourism policy and sustainable energy policies at national and international level, given the heavy reliance of tourism on air travel and the risks associated with climate change
  • Measures that identify and facilitate high volume, low risk legitimate travellers to move more freely and efficiently should be adopted, targeting constrained resources where they are most needed to secure borders and meet economic, security and other needs.

Source: http://www.oecd.org/cfe/tourism/publication-tourism-trends-policies.htm

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