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The online users’ engagement with e-Government services

This is an excerpt from my latest academic contribution.

How to Cite: Camilleri, M.A. (2019). The online users’ perceptions toward electronic government services. Journal of Information, Communication & Ethics in Society. 10.1108/JICES-09-2019-0102


tech

Several governments around the globe are utilizing the digital and mobile technologies to enhance the provision of their public services (EuroParl, 2015; Zuiderwijk Janssen & Dwivedi. 2015). Digital and mobile services are the facilitating instruments that are enabling all levels of the governments’ operations, to better service their citizens, big businesses, small enterprises and non-profit organizations (Wirtz & Birkmeyer, 2018; Rana & Dwivedi, 2015; Evans & Campos, 2013). The-governments are increasingly relying on ICT, including computers, websites and business process re-engineering (BPR) to engage with online users (Isaías, Pífano & Miranda, 2012; Weerakkody, Janssen & Dwivedi, 2011). Hence, the delivery of e-government and m-government services may usually demand the public service to implement specific transformational processes and procedures that are ultimately intended to add value to customers (Pereira, Macadar, Luciano & Testa, 2017).  Previously, the-governments’ consumers relied on face-to-face interactions or on telephone communications to engage with their consumers. Gradually, many governments had introduced interactive communications as departments and their officials started using the emails to engage with online users. Today, citizens and businesses can communicate and interact with the-government departments and agencies in real-time, through virtual call centers, via instant-messaging (IM), graphical user interfaces (GUI) and audio/video presentations.

In the past, the-governments’ services were operated in administrative silos of information (EuroParl, 2017). However, the electronic governance involves the data exchange between the-government and its stakeholders, including the businesses as well as the general public (Pereira et al., 2017; Rana & Dwivedi, 2015; Chun et al., 2010). The advances in interactive technologies have brought significant improvements in the delivery of service quality to online users of the Internet (Sá, Rocha & Cota, 2016; Isaías et al., 2012). As a result, the e-government and m-government services have become refined and sophisticated. Thus, the provision of online services is more efficient and less costly when compared to the offline services.

However, there are still many citizens and businesses who for various reasons may not want to engage with the-governments’ electronic and/or mobile services (Shareef, Kumar, Dwivedi & Kumar, 2016; 2014). This argumentation is conspicuous with the digital divide in society as not everyone is benefiting from an equitable access and democratic participation in the Internet or from the e-government systems (Ebbers, Jansen & van Deursen, 2016; Friemel, 2016; Luna-Reyes, Gil-Garcia & Romero, 2012; Isaías, Miranda & Pífano, 2009). The low usage of e-government systems impedes the ability of many governments to connect to citizens (Danila & Abdullah, 2014). Mensah (2018) held that the government authorities should promote the utilization of user-friendly mobile applications as the majority of citizens are increasingly engaging with their smartphones for different purposes, including to access information and services. Many countries around the world have introduced online government portals can be accessed through desktop computers as well as via mobile-friendly designs (Camilleri, 2019a; Ndou, 2004). Massey et al. (2019) posited that the government’s electronic services can be integrated among different devices in order to ensure an effective service delivery. These authors also maintained that the citizens are increasingly relying on the features of the mobile technologies as they are always connected to wireless networks. Their portable, mobile devices can provide access to a wide array of public information at any time and in any place (Camilleri & Camilleri, 2019; Wirtz & Birkmeyer, 2018; Sareen, Punia, & Chanana, 2013).

In a similar vein, many citizens may easily access their respective government’s online portal via virtual, open networks. They can also receive instantaneous messages and responses from the governments’ public service systems in their mobile devices, including smart phones or tablets (Shareef et al., 2016). Therefore, m-governance can possibly enhance the quality of the public services in terms of improved efficiency and cost savings (Madden, Bohlin, Oniki, & Tran, 2013). Notwithstanding, in the near future, the government’s electronic systems will be in a better position to exceed their citizens’  expectations, in terms of quality of service (Li & Shang, 2019). The advances in technology, including the increased massive wireless data traffic from different application scenarios, as well as the efficient resource allocation schemes will be better exploited to improve the capacity of online and mobile networks (Zhang, Liu, Chu, Long, Aghvami & Leung, 2017). For instance, the fifth generation (5G) of mobile communication systems is expected to enhance  the citizens’ service quality as they may offer higher mobile connection speeds, capacities and reduced latencies (Osseiran, Boccardi, Braun, Kusume, Marsch, Maternia & Tullberg, 2014; Zhang et al., 2017).

Nevertheless, despite these technological breakthroughs, there are many citizens who are still reluctant to use the-governments’ electronic and/or mobile services as they hold negative perceptions toward public administration (Wirtz & Birkmeyer, 2018; Shareef, Dwivedi, Stamati, & Williams, 2014). These individuals are not comfortable to share their personal information online (Van Deursen & Van Dijk, 2014). They may perceive that e-government and/or m-government platforms are risky and unsecure (Conradie & Choenni, 2014; Bélanger & Carter, 2008). Consequentially, they will decide not to upload their data as they suspect that it can be used by third parties (Picazo-Vela et al., 2012; Bélanger & Carter, 2008).

References (these are all the references that appeared in the bibliography section of the full paper).

Al-Hujran, O., Al-Debei, M. M., Chatfield, A., & Migdadi, M. (2015), “The imperative of influencing citizen attitude toward e-government adoption and use”, Computers in human Behavior, Vol 53, pp. 189-203.

Ajzen, I. (1991), “The theory of planned behavior”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 179-211.

Bélanger, F. and Carter, L. (2008), “Trust and risk in e-government adoption”, The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 165-176.

Camilleri, M. A. and Camilleri, A.C. (2017a), “The technology acceptance of mobile applications in education”, In 13th International Conference on Mobile Learning (Budapest, April 10th). Proceedings, International Association for Development of the Information Society.

Camilleri, M.A., and Camilleri, A.C. (2017b), “Digital learning resources and ubiquitous technologies in education”, Technology, Knowledge and Learning, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 65-82.

Camilleri, M. A. (2019a), “Exploring the Behavioral Intention to Use e-Government Services: Validating the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology”. 9th International Conference on Internet Technologies & Society, Lingnan University, Hong Kong. IADIS.

Camilleri, M. (2019b), “The SMEs’ technology acceptance of digital media for stakeholder engagement”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 26 No. 4, pp. 504-521.

Camilleri, M.A. and Camilleri, A.C. (2019), “The Students’ Readiness to Engage with Mobile Learning Apps”, Interactive Technology and Smart Education”, available at: DOI: 10.1108/ITSE-06-2019-0027 (accessed 5 September 2019).

Carter, L. and Bélanger, F. (2005), “The utilization of e‐government services: citizen trust, innovation and acceptance factors”, Information Systems Journal, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 5-25.

Chun, S., Shulman, S., Sandoval, R. and Hovy, E. (2010), “Government 2.0: Making connections between citizens, data and government”, Information Polity, Vol. 15, Nos. (1, 2), pp. 1-9.

Conradie, P. and Choenni, S. (2014), “On the barriers for local government releasing open data”, Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 31, pp. S10-S17.

Davis, F.D. (1989), “Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology”, MIS Quarterly, pp. 319-340.

Davis, F.D., Bagozzi, R.P. and Warshaw, P.R. (1989), “User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models”, Management Science, Vol. 35, No. 8, pp. 982-1003.

Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R.P. and Warshaw, P.R. (1992), “Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation to use computers in the workplace”, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 22, No. 14, pp. 1111-1132.

Ebbers, W. E., Jansen, M. G. and van Deursen, A. J. (2016), “Impact of the digital divide on e-government: Expanding from channel choice to channel usage”, Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 685-692.

EU (2018), “EU Data Protection Rules”, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/priorities/justice-and-fundamental-rights/data-protection/2018-reform-eu-data-protection-rules/eu-data-protection-rules_en

EuroParl (2015), “e-government: Using technology to improve public services and democratic participation”, available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2015/565890/EPRS_IDA(2015)565890_EN.pdf (accessed 12 August 2019).

EuroParl (2017), “The role of e-government in deepening the single market”, available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2017/608706/EPRS_BRI(2017)608706_EN.pdf (accessed 12 August 2019).

Evans, A. M. and Campos, A. (2013), “Open government initiatives: Challenges of citizen participation”, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 172-185.

Fishbein, M. and Ajzen, I. (1975), “Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research”, Reading, MA, USA: Addison-Wesley.

Fornell, C. and Larcker, D.F. (1981), “Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 48, pp. 39-50.

Friemel, T. N. (2016), “The digital divide has grown old: Determinants of a digital divide among seniors”, New Media & Society, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 313-331.

Isaías, P., Miranda, P. and Pífano, S. (2009), “Critical success factors for web 2.0–A reference framework”, In International Conference on Online Communities and Social Computing (pp. 354-363). Berlin,Germany: Springer.

Isaías, P., Pífano, S. and Miranda, P. (2012), “Web 2.0: Harnessing democracy’s potential”, In Public Service, Governance and Web 2.0 Technologies: Future Trends in Social Media (pp. 223-236). Hershey, USA: IGI Global.

Jaeger, P. and Matteson, M. (2009), “e-Government and Technology Acceptance: The Case of the Implementation of Section 508 Guidelines for Websites”, Electronic Journal of E-Government, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 87-98.

Kline, R.B. (2005), “Principles and practice of structural equation modeling” (2nd ed.). New York, USA: Guilford Press.

Layne, K. and Lee, J. (2001), “Developing fully functional E-government: A four stage model”, Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 122-136.

Lee, J. B. and Porumbescu, G. A. (2019), “Engendering inclusive e-government use through citizen IT training programs”, Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 69-76.

Li, Y. and Shang, H. (2019), “Service quality, perceived value, and citizens’ continuous-use intention regarding e-government: Empirical evidence from China”, Information & Management, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378720617306912

Luna-Reyes, L. F., Gil-Garcia, J. R. and Romero, G. (2012), “Towards a multidimensional model for evaluating electronic government: Proposing a more comprehensive and integrative perspective”, Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 324-334.

Madden, G., Bohlin, E., Oniki, H. and Tran, T. (2013), “Potential demand for m-government services in Japan”, Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 20, No. 8, pp. 732-736.

Mensah, I. K. (2018), “Citizens’ Readiness to adopt and use e-government services in the city of Harbin, China”, International Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 297-307.

Mossey, S., Bromberg, D. and Manoharan, A. P. (2019), “Harnessing the power of mobile technology to bridge the digital divide: a look at US cities’ mobile-government capability”, Journal of Information Technology & Politics, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 52-65.

Ndou, V. (2004), “E–Government for developing countries: opportunities and challenges”, The electronic journal of information systems in developing countries, Vol 18, No. 1, pp. 1-24.

Osseiran, A., Boccardi, F., Braun, V., Kusume, K., Marsch, P., Maternia, M. and Tullberg, H. (2014), “Scenarios for 5G mobile and wireless communications: the vision of the METIS project”, IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 52, No. 5, pp. 26-35.

Park, S.Y., Nam, M.W. and Cha, S. B. (2012), “University students’ behavioral intention to use mobile learning: Evaluating the technology acceptance model”, British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 592-605.

Pereira, G. V., Macadar, M. A., Luciano, E. M. and Testa, M. G. (2017), “Delivering public value through open government data initiatives in a Smart City context”, Information Systems Frontiers, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 213-229.

Picazo-Vela, S., Gutiérrez-Martínez, I. and Luna-Reyes, L. F. (2012), “Understanding risks, benefits, and strategic alternatives of social media applications in the public sector”, Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 504-511.

Rana, N. P., Dwivedi, Y. K. and Williams, M. D. (2013), “Analysing challenges, barriers and CSF of e gov adoption”, Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 177-198.

Rana, N. P. and Dwivedi, Y.K. (2015), “Citizen’s adoption of an e-government system: Validating extended social cognitive theory (SCT)”, Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 172-181.

Sá, F., Rocha, Á. and Cota, M. P. (2016), “From the quality of traditional services to the quality of local e-Government online services: A literature review”, Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 149-160.

Scott, M., DeLone, W. and Golden, W. (2016), “Measuring e-government success: a public value approach”, European Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 187-208.

Shareef, M. A., Dwivedi, Y. K., Stamati, T. and Williams, M. D. (2014), “SQ m gov: a comprehensive service-quality paradigm for mobile-government”, Information Systems Management, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 126-142.

Shareef, M. A., Kumar, V., Dwivedi, Y. K. and Kumar, U. (2016), “Service delivery through mobile-government (m gov): Driving factors and cultural impacts”, Information Systems Frontiers, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 315-332.

Sharma, R., Yetton, P. and Crawford, J. (2009), “Estimating the effect of common method variance: The method—method pair technique with an illustration from TAM Research”, MIS Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 473-490.

Van Deursen, A. and Van Dijk, J. (2011), “Internet skills and the digital divide”, New Media & Society”, Vol. 13 No. 6, pp. 893-911.

Van Deursen, A. J., & Van Dijk, J. A. (2014), “The digital divide shifts to differences in usage”, New Media & Aociety, Vol. 16 No. 3, pp. 507-526.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M.G., Davis, G.B. and Davis, F.D. (2003), “User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view”, MIS Quarterly, pp. 425-478.

Venkatesh, V., Thong, J.Y. and Xu, X. (2012), “Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology”, MIS Quarterly, pp. 157-178.

Wang, Y.S. and Shih, Y.W. (2009), “Why do people use information kiosks? A validation of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology”, Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 158-165.

Weerakkody, V., Janssen, M. and Dwivedi, Y.K. (2011), “Transformational change and business process reengineering (BPR): Lessons from the British and Dutch public sector”, Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 320-328.

Wirtz, B. W. and Birkmeyer, S. (2018), “Mobile-government Services: An Empirical Analysis of Mobile-government Attractiveness”, International Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 41, No. 16, pp. 1385-1395.

Zhang, H., Liu, N., Chu, X., Long, K., Aghvami, A. H., & Leung, V. C. (2017). Network slicing based 5G and future mobile networks: mobility, resource management, and challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine55(8), 138-145.

Zuiderwijk, A., Janssen, M. and Dwivedi, Y.K. (2015), “Acceptance and use predictors of open data technologies: Drawing upon the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology”, Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 429-440.

 

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Announcing a Call for Chapters (for Springer)

Call for Chapters

Strategic Corporate Communication and Stakeholder Engagement in the Digital Age

 

Abstract submission deadline: 30th June 2019 (EXTENDED to the 30th September 2019)
Full chapters due: 31st December 2019

 

Background

The latest advances in technologies and networks have been central to the expansion of electronic content across different contexts. Contemporary communication approaches are crossing boundaries as new media are offering both challenges and opportunities. The democratisation of the production and dissemination of information via the online technologies has inevitably led individuals and organisations to share content (including images, photos, news items, videos and podcasts) via the digital and social media. Interactive technologies are allowing individuals and organisations to co-create and manipulate electronic content. At the same time, they enable them to engage in free-flowing conversations with other online users, groups or virtual communities (Camilleri, 2017). Innovative technologies have empowered the organisations’ stakeholders, including; employees, investors, customers, local communities, government agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), as well as the news media, among others. Both internal and external stakeholders are in a better position to scrutinise the organisations’ decisions and actions. For this reason, there is scope for the practitioners to align their corporate communication goals and activities with the societal expectations (Camilleri, 2015; Gardberg & Fombrun, 2006). Therefore, organisations are encouraged to listen to their stakeholders. Several public interest organisations, including listed businesses, banks and insurance companies are already sharing information about their financial and non-financial performance in an accountable and transparent manner. The rationale behind their corporate disclosures is to develop and maintain strong and favourable reputations among stakeholders (Camilleri, 2018; Cornelissen, 2008). The corporate reputation is “a perceptual representation of a company’s past actions and future prospects that describe the firm’s overall appeal to all of its key constituents when compared to other leading rivals” (Fombrun, 1996).

Business and media practitioners ought to be cognisant about the strategic role of corporate communication in leveraging the organisations’ image and reputation among stakeholders (Van Riel & Fombrun, 2007). They are expected to possess corporation communication skills as they need to forge relationships with different stakeholder groups (including employees, customers, suppliers, investors, media, regulatory authorities and the community at large). They have to be proficient in specialist areas, including; issues management, crises communication as well as in corporate social responsibility reporting, among other topics. At the same time, they should be aware about the possible uses of different technologies, including; artificial intelligence, augmented and virtual reality, big data analytics, blockchain and internet of things, among others; as these innovative tools are disrupting today’s corporate communication processes.

 

Objective

This title shall explain how strategic communication and media management can affect various political, economic, societal and technological realities. Theoretical and empirical contributions can shed more light on the existing structures, institutions and cultures that are firmly founded on the communication technologies, infrastructures and practices. The rapid proliferation of the digital media has led both academics and practitioners to increase their interactive engagement with a multitude of stakeholders. Very often, they are influencing regulators, industries, civil society organisations and activist groups, among other interested parties. Therefore, this book’s valued contributions may include, but are not restricted to, the following topics:

 

Artificial Intelligence and Corporate Communication

Augmented and Virtual Reality in Corporate Communication

Blockchain and Corporate Communication

Big Data and Analytics in Corporate Communication

Branding and Corporate Reputation

Corporate Communication via Social Media

Corporate Communication Policy

Corporate Culture

Corporate Identity

Corporate Social Responsibility Communications

Crisis, Risk and Change Management

Digital Media and Corporate Communication

Employee Communications

Fake News and Corporate Communication

Government Relationships

Integrated Communication

Integrated Reporting of Financial and Non-Financial Performance

Internet Technologies and Corporate Communication

Internet of Things and Corporate Communication

Investor Relationships

Issues Management and Public Relations

Leadership and Change Communication

Marketing Communications

Measuring the Effectiveness of Corporate Communications

Metrics for Corporate Communication Practice

Press and Media Relationships

Stakeholder Management and Communication

Strategic Planning and Communication Management

 

This publication shall present the academics’ conceptual discussions that cover the contemporary topic of corporate communication in a concise yet accessible way. Covering both theory and practice, this publication shall introduce its readers to the key issues of strategic corporate communication as well as stakeholder management in the digital age. This will allow prospective practitioners to critically analyse future, real-life situations. All chapters will provide a background to specific topics as the academic contributors should feature their critical perspectives on issues, controversies and problems relating to corporate communication.

This authoritative book will provide relevant knowledge and skills in corporate communication that is unsurpassed in readability, depth and breadth. At the start of each chapter, the authors will prepare a short abstract that summarises the content of their contribution. They are encouraged to include descriptive case studies to illustrate real situations, conceptual, theoretical or empirical contributions that are meant to help aspiring managers and executives in their future employment. In conclusion, each chapter shall also contain a succinct summary that should outline key implications (of the findings) to academia and / or practitioners, in a condensed form. This will enable the readers to retain key information.

 

Target Audience

This textbook introduces aspiring practitioners as well as under-graduate and post-graduate students to the subject of corporate communication – in a structured manner. More importantly, it will also be relevant to those course instructors who are teaching media, marketing communications and business-related subjects in higher education institutions, including; universities and colleges. It is hoped that course conveners will use this edited textbook as a basis for class discussions.

 

Submission Procedure

Senior and junior academic researchers are invited to submit a 300-word abstract on or before the 30th June 2019. Submissions should be sent to Mark.A.Camilleri@um.edu.mt. Authors will be notified about the editorial decision during July 2019. The length of the chapters should be between 6,000- 8,000 words (including references, figures and tables). These contributions will be accepted on or before the 31st December 2019. The references should be presented in APA style (Version 6). All submitted chapters will be critically reviewed on a double-blind review basis. The authors’ and the reviewers’ identities will remain anonymous. All authors will be requested to serve as reviewers for this book. They will receive a notification of acceptance, rejection or suggested modifications – on or before the 15th February 2020.

Note: There are no submission or acceptance fees for the publication of this book. All abstracts / proposals should be submitted via the editor’s email.

 

Editor

Mark Anthony Camilleri (Ph.D. Edinburgh)
Department of Corporate Communication,
Faculty of Media and Knowledge Sciences,
University of Malta, MALTA.
Email: mark.a.camilleri@um.edu.mt

 

Publisher

Following the double-blind peer review process, the full chapters will be submitted to Springer Nature for final review. For additional information regarding the publisher, please visit https://www.springer.com/gp. This prospective publication will be released in 2020.

 

Important Dates

Abstract Submission Deadline:          30th June 2019 30th September 2019
Notification of Acceptance:               31st July 2019 31st October 2019

Full Chapters Due:                             31st December 2019

Notification of Review Results:         15th February 2020
Final Chapter Submission:                 31st March 2020

Final Acceptance Notification:          30th April, 2020

References

Camilleri, M.A. (2015). Valuing Stakeholder Engagement and Sustainability Reporting. Corporate Reputation Review18(3), 210-222. https://link-springer-com.ejournals.um.edu.mt/article/10.1057/crr.2015.9

Camilleri, M.A. (2017). Corporate Sustainability, Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319468488

Camilleri, M.A. (2018). Theoretical Insights on Integrated Reporting: The Inclusion of Non-Financial Capitals in Corporate Disclosures. Corporate Communications: An International Journal23(4), 567-581. https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/CCIJ-01-2018-0016

Cornelissen, J.P. (2008). Corporate Communication. The International Encyclopedia of Communication. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781405186407.wbiecc143.pub2

Fombrun, C.J. (1995). Reputation: Realizing Value from the Corporate Image. Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard Business School Press.

Gardberg, N.A., & Fombrun, C. J. (2006). Corporate Citizenship: Creating Intangible Assets across Institutional Environments. Academy of Management Review31(2), 329-346. https://journals.aom.org/doi/abs/10.5465/AMR.2006.20208684

Van Riel, C.B., & Fombrun, C.J. (2007). Essentials of Corporate Communication: Implementing Practices for Effective Reputation Management. Oxford, UK: Routledge. http://repository.umpwr.ac.id:8080/bitstream/handle/123456789/511/Essentials%20of%20Corporate%20Communication.pdf?sequence=1

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The Users’ Perceptions of the Electronic Government’s (e-gov) Services

This is an excerpt from one of my latest conference papers entitled; “Exploring the Behavioral Intention to Use E-Government Services: Validating the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology”.

How to Cite: Camilleri, M.A. (2019). Exploring the Behavioral Intention to Use E-Government Services: Validating the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. In Kommers, P., Hui, W., Isaias, P., & Tomayess, I. (Eds) 9th International Conference on Internet Technologies & Society, Lingnan University, Hong Kong (February 2019), International Association for Development of the Information Society.


The information and communication technologies (ICTs) as well as other web-based technologies can enhance the effectiveness, economies and efficiencies of service delivery in the public sector. Therefore, many governments are increasingly using the digital and mobile media to deliver public services to online users (Zuiderwijk Janssen & Dwivedi. 2015). The electronic or mobile government services (e-gov) are facilitators and instruments that are intended to better serve all levels of the governments’ operations, including its departments, agencies and their employees as well as individual citizens, businesses and enterprises (Rana & Dwivedi, 2015). The governments may use information and communication technologies, including computers, websites and business process re-engineering (BPR) to interact with their customers (Isaías, Pífano & Miranda, 2012; Weerakkody, Janssen & Dwivedi, 2011). E-gov services involve the transformational processes within the public administration; that add value to the governments’ procedures and services through the introduction and continued appropriation of information and communication technologies, as a facilitator of these transformations. These government systems have improved over the years.  In the past, online users relied on one-way communications, including emails. Today, online users may engage in two-way communications, as they communicate and interact with the government via the Internet, through instant-messaging (IM), graphical user interfaces (GUI) or audio/video presentations.

Traditionally, the public services were centered around the operations of the governments’ departments. However, e-governance also involves a data exchange between the government and other stakeholders, including the businesses and the general public (Rana & Dwivedi, 2015). The advances in technology have led to significant improvements in the delivery of service quality to online users (Isaías et al., 2012). As e-government services become more sophisticated, the online users will be intrigued to interact with the government as e-services are usually more efficient and less costly than offline services that are delivered by civil servants. However, there may be individuals who for many reasons, may not have access to computers and the internet. Such individuals may not benefit of the governments’ services as other citizens. As a result, the digital divide among citizens can impact their socio-economic status (Ebbers, Jansen & van Deursen, 2016). Moreover, there may be individuals who may be wary of using e-government systems. They may not trust the e-gov sites with their personal information, as they may be concerned on privacy issues. Many individuals still perceive the governments’ online sites as risky and unsecure.

This contribution addresses a knowledge gap in academic literature as it examines the online users’ perceptions on e-gov systems. It relies on valid and reliable measures from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) (Zuiderwijk et al., 2015; Wang & Shih, 2009; Venkatesh, Morris, Davis & Davis, 2003;2012) to explore the respondents ’attitudes toward performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, facilitating conditions as well as their intentions to use the governments’ electronic services. Moreover, it also investigates how the demographic variables, including age, gender and experiences have an effect on the UTAUT constructs.. In a nutshell, this research explains the causal path that leads to the online users’ acceptance and use of e-gov.

References

Ebbers, W. E., Jansen, M. G., & van Deursen, A. J. 2016. Impact of the digital divide on e-government: Expanding from channel choice to channel usage. Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 685-692.

Isaías, P., Pífano, S., & Miranda, P. (2012). Web 2.0: Harnessing democracy’s potential. In Public Service, Governance and Web 2.0 Technologies: Future Trends in Social Media (pp. 223-236). IGI Global.

Rana, N. P., & Dwivedi, Y.K. 2015. Citizen’s adoption of an e-government system: Validating extended social cognitive theory (SCT). Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 172-181.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M.G., Davis, G.B., & Davis, F. D. 2003. User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, pp. 425-478.

Venkatesh, V., Thong, J.Y., & Xu, X. 2012. Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. MIS Quarterly, pp. 157-178.

Wang, Y.S., & Shih, Y.W. (2009). Why do people use information kiosks? A validation of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 158-165.

Weerakkody, V., Janssen, M., & Dwivedi, Y. K. 2011. Transformational change and business process reengineering (BPR): Lessons from the British and Dutch public sector. Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 320-328.

Zuiderwijk, A., Janssen, M., & Dwivedi, Y.K. 2015. Acceptance and use predictors of open data technologies: Drawing upon the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 429-440.

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Travel Search Engines and Price Comparison Websites

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Many search engines are increasingly offering advantageous deals on travel products. Very often, they may have user-friendly websites that help individual consumers search for the best prices. For example, a flight search may include one-way, return or multiple destinations. The travellers may specify whether they would like to travel in a particular class of service (for example, economy, business or first class). Travellers may also opt for direct services (which are usually more expensive), and their search can be narrowed down according to their preferred departure and arrival times (if any).

In addition, many search engines identify their “best flight” option. Their algorithm will usually base their decision on layover time, the length of flight, and departure/arrivals times. They may also let you know if there are cheaper flights available, particularly if there are nearby airports.

Price Alerts: The search engines will enable their users to set a price alert on tourism products. For example, after the users have given details on the travel dates and their email address, they will receive regular emails which will communicate whether the price for the flight (that was searched through the search engines’ system) has gone up or down in price.

Travel alerts are convenient for those passengers who are planning their itineraries in advance. Online prospects will be updated on the best time to purchase their flight (in this case).

Flight Deal Websites: Online prospects can find good flight deals by following niche websites that are dedicated to posting such deals. Most of these websites may not necessarily be affiliated with any airline. Very often, consumers may check these websites on a regular basis. Alternatively, they may follow travel and tourism groups through social media.

Flexibility: An inexpensive flight may not always be the right flight for passengers. The prospective customers may demand flexible dates. For instance, they may want to avoid unnecessary overnight stays in random cities (a hotel accommodation may well increase the cost of the travellers’ journey). Moreover, there are other important considerations. For example, customers may not be willing to travel to distant airports. They may not like to travel at night, et cetera.

The best flight deals may not last long as search engines may frequently change their flight prices.

Bonus Tip: Many low-cost carriers may not feature all costs in their prices. These “hidden” costs may comprise carry-on baggage fees, checked-baggage charges and seat fees. Customers should check these fees and charges before purchasing a flight with any airline. Such “hidden” costs and expenses are usually disclosed on the airlines’ respective websites. In many cases these supplementary fees can be paid in advance. If customers would not pay in anticipation of their flight, they may easily incur additional charges.

Therefore, the overall best deal should be determined according to flight times, hidden costs, and personal airline preferences.

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